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Dr. Robert Malone: On the International COVID Summit and More | Interview

Dr. Robert Malone: International COVID Summit
Analysis by Dr. Joseph Mercola – Fact Checked

  • CDC director Rochelle Walensky overruled the CDC’s expert panel and went ahead with the recommendation to issue a booster shot for adults at high risk of infection
  • This is because COVID-19 shots do not fully protect you from infection, virus replication or shedding, and just because you’ve had the jab doesn’t mean you’re not going to infect anybody else
  • An unspoken social contract convinced many people to get the jabs — if you submit to the experimental shots, you would not only be personally protected but you would also protect your community, and we could all recover and get back to a sense of normalcy
  • By reducing symptoms of illness while allowing viral replication to continue, the injections increase the likelihood that vaccinated people will become superspreaders of COVID-19
  • Malone predicts that as the shots’ effectiveness continues to wane, we’re going to see increasing cases of vaccinated people getting COVID-19 and being hospitalized and dying as a result, at which point people will have to come to terms with the fact that they’ve been misled
  • Three action items Malone took home from the International COVID Summit are the importance of optimizing vitamin D levels; you don’t have to live in fear; and find a doctor who will give you early treatment for COVID-19 if you test positive

Dr. Richard Fleming’s Presentation on Covid-19, Its Vaccine, and the Legal Proceedings Before the ICC

Dr. Richard Fleming’s Presentation on Covid-19, Its Vaccine, and the Legal Proceedings Before the ICC

Dr. Richard Fleming gave a PowerPoint presentation on Covid-19 and the vaccine-induced ADE on The Alex Jones Show. He also talked about the joint claim submitted to the International Criminal Court (ICC).

Here is the link to the show:

Emergency Saturday Broadcast! Pentagon A.I. Confirms Covid Shots Triggering Deadly ADE In The Vaccinated

Dr. Fleming provided a sworn affidavit to the joint claim and authored the petition letter to ICC.
The letter is available here:

Investigation and Prosecution of Those Individuals Responsible for Crimes Against Humanity

Most Vaccinated Countries Have Highest Number of Covid-19 Cases

Harvard University study finds most vaccinated countries have highest number of Covid-19 cases per million people suggesting the jabs do not work

COVID-19 injections have been presented as the only solution to stop the pandemic. Mass vaccination has occurred on an unprecedented scale, and as of October 2021, 6.54 billion doses of COVID-19 jabs have been administered, equating to 47.6% of the world population having received at least one dose.1

The mass injection effort, however, has failed to stop the pandemic, and a study published in the European Journal of Epidemiology has released bombshell data showing that increases in COVID-19 are unrelated to levels of vaccination in 68 countries worldwide and 2,947 counties in the U.S.2

By Dr Joseph Mercola

Data Show Jabs Aren’t Working as Promised

The official COVID narrative continues to blame the ongoing pandemic on the unvaccinated, even as data show that areas with high vaccination rates, like Israel, continue to have significant COVID-19 spread. As noted by S. V. Subramanian, from the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies and a colleague in the European Journal of Epidemiology:3

“Vaccines currently are the primary mitigation strategy to combat COVID-19 around the world. For instance, the narrative related to the ongoing surge of new cases in the United States (US) is argued to be driven by areas with low vaccination rates.

A similar narrative also has been observed in countries, such as Germany and the United Kingdom. At the same time, Israel that was hailed for its swift and high rates of vaccination has also seen a substantial resurgence in COVID-19 cases.”

Using data from Our World in Data for cross-country analysis, and the White House COVID-19 Team data for U.S. counties, the researchers investigated the relationship between new COVID-19 cases and the percentage of the population that had been fully vaccinated. Sixty-eight countries were included, among which they found “no discernable relationship between percentage of population fully vaccinated and new COVID-19 cases in the last seven days.”

Not only did vaccination not decrease the number of new COVID-19 cases, but it was associated with a slight increase in them. According to the study, “[T]he trend line suggests a marginally positive association such that countries with higher percentage of population fully vaccinated have higher COVID-19 cases per 1 million people.”4

Highly Vaxxed Countries With Higher COVID-19 Cases

If there were any doubt for the need to seriously question the worldwide mass injection campaign, this should put it to rest: Iceland and Portugal, both of which have more than 75% of their populations fully vaccinated, have more COVID-19 cases per 1 million people than Vietnam and South Africa, which have only about 10% of their population fully vaccinated.5

Israel is another example. With more than 60% of its population fully vaccinated, it had the highest number of COVID-19 cases per 1 million people in the last seven days.6 The data from US counties were similar, with new COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people “largely similar” regardless of the percentage of the population fully vaccinated.

“There also appears to be no significant signaling of COVID-19 cases decreasing with higher percentages of population fully vaccinated,” they wrote.7 Notably, out of the five U.S. counties with the highest vaccination rates — ranging from 84.3% to 99.9% fully vaccinated — four of them were on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s “high transmission” list. Meanwhile, 26.3% of the 57 counties with “low transmission” have low vaccination rates of under 20%.

The study even accounted for a one-month lag time that could occur among the fully vaccinated, since it’s said that it takes two weeks after the final dose for “full immunity” to occur. Still, “no discernable association between COVID-19 cases and levels of fully vaccinated” was observed.8

Key Reasons Why Reliance on Jabs Should Be Re-examined

The study summed up several reasons why the “sole reliance on vaccination as a primary strategy to mitigate COVID-19” should be re-evaluated. For starters, the jab’s effectiveness is waning. A report from Israel’s Ministry of Health showed that Pfizer-BioNTech’s injection was only 39% effective in preventing COVID-19 infection,9,10 which is “substantially lower than the trial efficacy of 96%.”11

“A substantial decline in immunity from mRNA vaccines six months post immunization has also been reported,” the researchers noted, adding that even severe hospitalization and death from COVID-19, which the jabs claim to offer protection against, have increased from 0.01 to 9% and 0 to 15.1%, respectively, among the fully vaccinated from January 2021 to May 2021.12 If the jabs work as advertised, why haven’t these rates continued to rise instead of fall?

“It is also emerging,” the researchers noted, “that immunity derived from the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine may not be as strong as immunity acquired through recovery from the COVID-19 virus.”13

For instance, a retrospective observational study published August 25, 2021, revealed that natural immunity is superior to immunity from COVID-19 jabs, with researchers stating, “This study demonstrated that natural immunity confers longer lasting and stronger protection against infection, symptomatic disease and hospitalization caused by the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, compared to the BNT162b2 two-dose vaccine-induced immunity.”14

The fact is, while breakthrough cases continue among those who have gotten COVID-19 injections, it’s extremely rare to get reinfected by COVID-19 after you’ve already had the disease and recovered. How rare? Researchers from Ireland conducted a systematic review including 615,777 people who had recovered from COVID-19, with a maximum duration of follow-up of more than 10 months.15

“Reinfection was an uncommon event,” they noted, “… with no study reporting an increase in the risk of reinfection over time.” The absolute reinfection rate ranged from 0% to 1.1%, while the median reinfection rate was just 0.27%.16,17,18

Another study revealed similarly reassuring results. It followed 43,044 SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive people for up to 35 weeks, and only 0.7% were reinfected. When genome sequencing was applied to estimate population-level risk of reinfection, the risk was estimated at 0.1%.19

There was no indication of waning immunity over seven months of follow-up — unlike with the COVID-19 injection — with the researchers concluding, “Reinfection is rare. Natural infection appears to elicit strong protection against reinfection with an efficacy >90% for at least seven months.”20

All Risk for No Reward?

The purpose of informed consent is to give people all of the data related to a medical procedure so they can make an educated decision before consenting. In the case of COVID-19 injections, such data initially weren’t available, given their emergency authorization, and as concerning side effects became apparent, attempts to share them publicly were silenced.

In August 2021, a large study from Israel21 revealed that the Pfizer COVID-19 mRNA jab is associated with a threefold increased risk of myocarditis,22 leading to the condition at a rate of 1 to 5 events per 100,000 persons.23 Other elevated risks were also identified following the COVID-19 jab, including lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), appendicitis and herpes zoster infection.24

Dr. Peter McCullough, an internist, cardiologist and epidemiologist, is among those who have warned that COVID-19 injections are not only failing but putting lives at risk.25 According to McCullough, by January 22, 2021, there had been 186 deaths reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database following COVID-19 injection — more than enough to reach the mortality signal of concern to stop the program.

“With a program this size, anything over 150 deaths would be an alarm signal,” he said. The U.S. “hit 186 deaths with only 27 million Americans jabbed.” McCullough believes if the proper safety boards had been in place, the COVID-19 jab program would have been shut down in February 2021 based on safety and risk of death.26

Now, with data showing no difference in rates of COVID-19 cases among the vaxxed and unvaxxed, it appears more and more likely that the injections have a high level of risk with very little reward, especially among certain populations, like youth. Due to the risk of myocarditis, Britain’s Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunization (JCVI) recommended against COVID-9 injections for healthy 12- to 15-year-olds.27

Is Mass Vaccination Driving Variants?

Along with serious questions over effectiveness are alarming claims that the jabs are enhancing COVID-19 infectivity and driving mutations that are leading to variants. When four common mutations were introduced to the delta variant, Pfizer’s mRNA injection enhanced its infectivity, causing it to become resistant.28

A delta variant with three mutations has already emerged,29 which suggests it’s only a matter of time before a fourth mutation develops, at which point complete resistance to Pfizer’s jab may be imminent.

Meanwhile, it’s well known that if you put a living organism like bacteria or viruses under pressure, via antibiotics, antibodies or chemotherapeutics, for example, but don’t kill them off completely, you can inadvertently encourage their mutation into more virulent strains. Those that escape your immune system end up surviving and selecting mutations to ensure their further survival.

Many have warned about immune escape due to the pressure being placed upon the COVID-19 virus during mass vaccination,30 and another study — this one based on a mathematical model,31 found that a worst-case scenario can develop when a large percentage of a population is vaccinated but viral transmission remains high — much as it is now. This represents the prime scenario for the development of resistant mutant strains.32

At this point, with COVID-19 injection failures becoming impossible to ignore, serious injection-related health risks are becoming apparent and, now, no differences in new COVID-19 cases among areas with high vaccination rates, it’s time to publicly acknowledge that the injections aren’t the answer. As the European of Journal of Epidemiology researchers noted:33

Gut Microbiome Alterations in COVID-19

Since the outset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the gut microbiome in COVID-19 has garnered substantial interest, given its significant roles in human health and pathophysiology. Accumulating evidence is unveiling that the gut microbiome is broadly altered in COVID-19, including the bacterial microbiome, mycobiome, and virome.

Overall, the gut microbial ecological network is significantly weakened and becomes sparse in patients with COVID-19, together with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity. Beyond the existence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the gut microbiome of patients with COVID-19 is also characterized by enrichment of opportunistic bacteria, fungi, and eukaryotic viruses, which are also associated with disease severity and presentation. Meanwhile, a multitude of symbiotic bacteria and bacteriophages are decreased in abundance in patients with COVID-19. Such gut microbiome features persist in a significant subset of patients with COVID-19 even after disease resolution, coinciding with ‘long COVID’ (also known as post-acute sequelae of COVID-19). The broadly-altered gut microbiome is largely a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its downstream detrimental effects on the systemic host immunity and the gut milieu. The impaired host immunity and distorted gut microbial ecology, particularly loss of low-abundance beneficial bacteria and blooms of opportunistic fungi including Candida, may hinder the reassembly of the gut microbiome post COVID-19. Future investigation is necessary to fully understand the role of the gut microbiome in host immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the long-term effect of COVID-19 on the gut microbiome in relation to the host health after the pandemic.

Concluding remarks and perspectives

SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to complicated immunologic and pathophysiologic responses in the host. Along with the phenotypic changes in the host, the gut microbiome is broadly altered in COVID-19, including the bacterial microbiome, mycobiome, and virome. Moreover, subsequent blooms of opportunistic bacteria, fungi, and viruses under circumstances of SARS-CoV-2 infection and quiescent/overt gut inflammation in COVID-19 pose further threats to host health and gut microbiome restoration. Such expansions in certain microbial species and decreases in microbiome diversity in conjunction with the impaired host immunity may hinder re-assembly of the gut microbiome post COVID-19. Consequently, the altered gut microbiome ecology persists even after disease resolution.

Overall, the intricate microbiome ecological network in a steady state is significantly weakened in COVID-19, shifting to one predominated by COVID-19-enriched microbes. It is well-known that confounding factors such as treatment and diet can significantly affect the gut microbiome composition. However, due to the acute nature of COVID-19, controlling for these confounding factors or including treatment-naïve COVID-19 patients seems infeasible. Therefore, some of the differences between the microbiomes of COVID-19 and controls, and of those between disease stages (i.e., mild vs. severe COVID-19 cases), could be attributed to treatment regimens and/or diet.

Albeit, we observed consistent microbiome changes across studies, including decreases in the abundance of Eubaterium and SCFA-producing bacteria [12, 15, 19, 34, 35]. In addition, we observed that SARS-CoV-2 infection predominated over medications and diet in affecting the gut virome alterations in patients with COVID-19 [13]. These results together suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection might be a crucial contributor to the gut microbiome dysbiosis in patients with COVID-19. Although studies have demonstrated that the infection of SARS-CoV-2 would lead to the altered gut microbiome, the causal relationships among the baseline gut microbiome (before infection) that regulates ACE2 expression and host immune status, infectivity/severity of SARS-CoV-2, and altered gut microbiome after infection are complicated.

Read more:

Journal Pre-proofs
Gut Microbiome Alterations in COVID-19
Tao Zuo, Xiaojian Wu, Weiping Wen, Ping Lan
PII: S1672-0229(21)00206-0
Reference: GPB 572
To appear in: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics

COVID Vaccines and Pregnancy: Common Sense vs. Confusion

In a dramatic departure from medical ethics standards in place for decades, the CDC has been recommending that pregnant women get the new experimental COVID vaccines, even though pregnant women were excluded from all the clinical trials and we have no safety data for use in pregnancy. How does COVID affect pregnancy? Flu and whooping cough vaccines are used safely in pregnancy, but are there differences between the traditional vaccines and the experimental COVID vaccines? What are some of the risks for the mother and the baby with the COVID vaccines? Why is pregnancy a greater risk situation for the blood clotting risks with the COVID vaccines? What’s the difference between natural immunity from a COVID infection and the immunity after a COVID vaccine?



These questions and more are discussed with physician host, DrLee4America, and two highly specialist physician guests: Dr. Richard Blumrick and Dr. Raphael Stricker.

Dr. Richard Blumrick is a Duke fellowship-trained in Maternal-Fetal Medicine specialist who did his fellowship research on the use of lipid coatings to increase transport across the placenta, and is Chairman of Obstetrics at a major hospital in a large southwestern city. Dr. Blumrick specializes in treating women who have medical conditions which then become pregnant, and effects on the baby that can arise from the medical diseases or the drugs used to treat them, as well as healthy women who develop medical complications while pregnant.

Dr. Raphael Stricker is a specialist in Internal Medicine trained at Columbia University in New York, with subspecialty training in hematology, oncology, immunology, and immunotherapy from California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco. He is currently the Medical Director of the Alan E. Beer Medical Center for Reproductive Immunology in Los Gatos, CA. He is past President of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) and a board member of He has testified at Lyme disease hearings before the California State Senate and the United States Congress. He has authored and published over 200 medical journal articles, abstracts and letters. His research interests include immunologically-triggered miscarriages, tickborne diseases, and COVID-19. He is the recipient of the AMA Award for Physician Excellence and an Outstanding Reviewer Award from the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Listen to the podcast here.

Japan – 1.6 Million Moderna Doses Contaminated

by: Sara Middleton


It’s not uncommon to hear about major drug recalls due to concerns over contamination.  Just three years ago we reported on a major recall by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) over a high blood pressure medication found to be tainted with a cancer-causing chemical called NDEA.

In breaking news, drug contamination is the reason for a recent Japan recall of a batch of COVID shots, although regulators in the European Union (EU) are still allowing production to continue at the plant where these shots originated from.

COVID SHOT CONTAMINATION:  Japanese officials halt 1.6 million doses of Moderna shots due to presence of metal in product

On August 26, Japanese officials halted the use of 1.63 million doses of the Moderna COVID shot that were sent to over 860 jab centers across the nation.  This suspension occurred more than a week after the Japanese distributor Takeda Pharmaceutical found evidence of metal contaminants within many of the shot vials.

NHK, in a report published late on Thursday, cited health ministry sources as saying the contaminant was believed to be a particle that reacted to magnets and was therefore suspected to be a metal. Moderna has described it as “particulate matter” that did not pose a safety or efficacy issue.

A Japanese health ministry official said the composition of the contaminant has not been confirmed. In a statement, Takeda said it asked Moderna to investigate the issue and that it would work with the ministry to replace the affected supply

According to Japanese health ministry officials, the contaminant found within the botched shots was shown to react to magnets – a finding which certainly calls into question the media’s blanket dismissal of numerous accounts of people showing that their bodies were unusually magnetized following their COVID jab.

Moderna, meanwhile, insists these metal contaminants are “particulate matter” from manufacturing or production, and do not pose any safety or efficacy issue.

The contaminated shots distributed across Japan originally came from a plant in Spain run by pharmaceutical firm Rovi.  Interestingly, drug regulators from the European Union are not going to require the plant to halt production at this time, despite the fact that the investigation over the contamination is still ongoing.

Setting aside what shouldn’t be in Moderna jab – here’s at least one ingredient that comes with possible health concerns

Unknowingly putting metals into the body can have a variety of harmful health effects.  But it’s not just what shouldn’t be in these drugs that are concerning some.

For example, information from Moderna reveals that their C19 jab – which is now called Spikevax in the EU – contains an ingredient called polyethylene glycol/macrogol (PEG).

According to the PEG Safety Data Sheet, there is no information available on this chemical’s carcinogenic effects, mutagenic effects, endocrine-disrupting effects, teratogenicity effects, reproductive effects, OR developmental effects.  In other words, there isn’t enough evidence to prove that this chemical is safe for human consumption – yet it’s found in common household items including cleaners, baby wipes, and cosmetics.

There is some evidence pointing to PEG’s potential health hazards, however.  According to, PEG is often produced using another chemical called ethylene oxide, which causes cancer.  For this reason, it’s possible that PEG can be unintentionally contaminated with ethylene oxide.  (Chemicals made with ethylene oxide can also be contaminated with another carcinogen called 1,4-dioxane.)

As a “penetration enhancer,” PEG also makes it easier for other substances – both toxic and non-toxic to pass through the skin and enter the body.

It’s an eye-opening experience to look up the Safety Data Sheet information of each COVID shot ingredient.  For example, another compound found in the Moderna shot called Sodium Acetate Trihydrate has known mutagenic effects in animals (meaning it has shown to be able to mutate DNA).

Consider researching these ingredients yourself as you make informed decisions about your health.

Sources for this article include:

Heart Inflammation In Young People Halts Moderna COVID

by: Sara Middleton, staff writer | October 11, 2021


In September, Denmark made headlines for dropping all of its domestic pandemic restrictions, including the COVID shot digital passport, which is no longer required to enter nightclubs, restaurants, and other public spaces.  According to NPR, the Danish government no longer considers COVID-19 “a socially critical disease.”

Officials credit the high vaccination rate in Denmark – where reportedly 80% of people older than 12 have received 2 doses of a Pfizer or Moderna shot – as the reason for this significant shift.  But recently, Denmark and another country from Europe suddenly paused the rollout of one of these Big Pharma jabs to younger populations due to the damaging health effects observed.

BREAKING: Two additional European countries say NO to Moderna COVID shot for younger age groups because jab causing heart inflammation

On October 6, Reuters announced that regulators from both Denmark and Sweden have decided to stop giving the Moderna COVID shot to younger people due to the increased risk of heart inflammation post-jab among young recipients.  On October 8, we learned that Finland also suspended the use of Moderna’s COVID-19 injection for young men and boys.

According to the National Institute of Health, heart inflammation, including myocarditis and pericarditis, can lead to many severe consequences, including heart failure, shock, stroke, and lung problems in severe or untreated cases, among other complications.

Swedish public health officials stated that they are pausing Moderna’s mRNA vaccine administration to anyone born in 1991 or later due to the increasingly observed link between the shot and heart inflammation in younger males.

The Swedish health agency stated that “the connection is especially clear regarding Moderna’s vaccine … especially after the second dose.”

Officials in Denmark echoed these statements when they said that in “preliminary data … there is a suspicion of an increased risk of heart inflammation when vaccinated with Moderna.”

Are these officials doing their due diligence – or is this some veiled attempt to position Pfizer as the jab leader?

When U.S. officials temporarily paused the use of the Johnson & Johnson jab to investigate the risk of dangerous blood clots following their COVID-19, mainstream media used it as an example to praise the government for their due diligence to protect the public.

But some skeptics had a different perspective: that Johnson & Johnson was being sacrificed in public discourse to paint the mRNA shots from Pfizer and Moderna in a better light, even though VAERS data and research studies – including a July 2021 study from Spain – have indicated an increased risk of blood clots following the mRNA shots, too.

The same skepticism is arising now in Europe.  After Denmark and Sweden said they are pausing Moderna shots for young people, they are instead recommending the Comirnaty® injection from Pfizer/BioNTech.  Officials in Norway have also advised men under 30 to get Comirnaty® instead of other COVID shot options.

What do you think:  Is there enough data to suggest the Pfizer shot is the “safest” option of the available COVID shots, especially for younger people?  For young, healthy people who are unlikely to get seriously ill from COVID-19, do the potential “benefits” of getting a COVID shot really outweigh the potential risks?

And, finally, don’t you think it’s odd that the one drug that continues to come out ahead – in the media – is produced by the company that paid the highest criminal fine in U.S. history for healthcare fraud?  Bottom line: whatever you decide, just make sure it’s an informed choice.

Sources for the article include:

Get The Fundamentals of The Preventative and Early Outpatient Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance Protocols

The FLCCC Alliance was organised in March, 2020 by a group of highly published, world renowned Critical Care physician/scholars – with the academic support of allied physicians from around the world – to research and develop lifesaving protocols for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in all stages of illness. Their MATH+ Hospital Treatment Protocol – introduced in March, 2020, has saved tens of thousands of patients who were critically ill with COVID-19.

See the full story here.

What the Church Needs to Know About Covid-19

This might be one of the most important and timely things you’ve ever read. If you take the time to read it, and then you disagree, I’ll reimburse you for your time. I’m not joking.

Kids, C19 and C19 Shots


Paul E. Alexander, PhD Health Research Methodologist Evidence-Based Medicine, Clinical epidemiologist, Former WHO-PAHO and US Health and Human Services (HHS), consultant/senior COVID Pandemic advisor, Former McMaster A ProfessorEvidence-Based Medicine. Currently Director of Evidence-Based Medicine and Research Methodology for Truth for Health Foundation.

“Children do not readily acquire SARS-CoV-2 (very low risk), spread it to other children or teachers, or endanger parents or others at home. This is the settled science. In the rare cases where a child contracts Covid virus it is very unusual for the child to get severely ill or die. Masking can do positive harm to children – as it can to some adults. But the cost benefit analysis is entirely different for adults and children – particularly younger children. Whatever arguments there may be for consenting adults – children should not be required to wear masks to prevent the spread of Covid-19. Of course, zero risk is not attainable – with or without masks, vaccines, therapeutics, distancing or anything else medicine may develop or government agencies may impose. In this regard, given the near zero risk to children, and given the emerging risks of the vaccine, then why would parents consider vaccinating their children with these untested vaccines that could set their children up to a lifetime of disability or death. These COVID vaccines are contra-indicated for children and provide no benefit, just opportunity for harm. No parent should allow their child to be vaccinated with these vaccines especially given they do not need them, and we have no ‘excluded harms’ by the sub-optimal research that was conducted”. 

The Nuremberg Code

  1. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.
    This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involved, as to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision. This latter element requires that, before the acceptance of an affirmative decision by the experimental subject, there should be made known to him the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected; and the effects upon his health or person, which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment.
    The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity.
  2. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature.
  3. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study, that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment.
  4. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.
  5. No experiment should be conducted, where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur; except, perhaps, in those experiments where the
    experimental physicians also serve as subjects.
  6. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment.
  7. Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death.
  8. The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons. The highest degree of skill and care should be required through all stages of the experiment of those who conduct or engage in the experiment.
  9. During the course of the experiment, the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end, if he has reached the physical or mental state, where continuation of the experiment seemed to him to be impossible.
  10. During the course of the experiment, the scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probable cause to believe, in the exercise of the good faith, superior skill and careful judgement required of him, that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury, disability, or death to the experimental subject.

[“Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10”, Vol. 2, pp. 181-182. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949.

COVID Vaccines Linked to Functional Neurological Disorders

by Judy George, Senior Staff Writer, MedPage Today August 20, 2021

Functional neurological disorders (FND) were found to be associated with COVID-19 vaccines, according to recent case reports.

Two cases of young women manifesting FND after COVID-19 vaccination were reported by Alfonso Fasano, MD, PhD, of the University of Toronto, and Antonio Daniele, MD, PhD, of Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome, in a letter to the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry.

Two other published reports showed probable FND precipitated by COVID-19 vaccine administration, highlighting that FND should be considered when assessing post-vaccine neurologic symptoms, wrote Matthew Butler, MD, of Kings College London in England, and co-authors in the Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience.

FND involves a disruption in normal brain mechanisms for controlling the body. It can be triggered by physical or emotional events including head injury, medical or surgical procedures, or vaccinations. People with FND may present with a range of neurological symptoms such as seizures, sensory abnormalities, gait or balance disturbance, or weakness. FND is distinct from feigning because patients perceive their symptoms as involuntary.

“We strongly encourage clinicians to be aware of the possibility for FND in response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations,” Butler told MedPage Today. “FND can be a serious and debilitating condition; however, it does not implicate any vaccine constituents and should not hamper ongoing vaccination efforts.”

“Making clinicians aware of this can benefit people with FND reactions to vaccines, as well as maintaining public confidence in the vaccine,” Butler added. “Rigorous causality assessments should occur when FND reactions are suspected.”

“Among the various adverse events which might be observed after COVID-19 vaccination, the occurrence of functional — once called psychogenic — neurological disorders might be a challenging issue for healthcare providers, media, and public opinion with a negative impact on vaccination campaigns,” noted Fasano and Daniele.

“In our view, FND following COVID-19 vaccination will not be a rare phenomenon and will be widely covered by the media, being interpreted as a direct consequence of the vaccine, as already seen in the past,” they wrote.

The first case from Fasano and Daniele involved a woman who presented with a short episode of generalized psychogenic non-epileptic seizures 20 minutes after receiving her second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. The event was followed by different episodes that included an inability to move her whole body. No post-ictal period followed these episodes, some of which were captured by video-electroencephalography and did not show any epileptic activity.

The second patient had persistent dizziness and reported loss of tactile sensitivity in her right arm and leg about 2 weeks after receiving the AstraZeneca vaccine. Her brain CT scan was unremarkable, and neurological examination did not show objective loss of tactile or pain sensitivity.

“In both patients, neurological symptoms were characterized by a sudden onset and overt inconsistency, as typically observed in patients with FND,” Fasano and Daniele wrote.

The cases reported by Butler and colleagues also involved previously healthy women, both in their 30s. One had probable FND after her first dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; the other, after her first Moderna shot.

“The close development of functional motor symptoms after the vaccine does not implicate the vaccine as the cause of those symptoms,” observed Alberto Espay, MD, MSc, of the University of Cincinnati, who was not involved with the case reports.

“Correlation does not imply causation,” Espay told MedPage Today. “If neurological symptoms following vaccination are determined to be functional during a neurological exam, then the vaccination can only be considered a stressor or precipitant, much like any other stressor might, such as a motor vehicle accident or sleep deprivation.”

Earlier this year, a group led by David Perez, MD, MMSc, of Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, published a paper in JAMA Neurology that discussed videos that had emerged on Facebook, YouTube, and other channels showing people with severe neurological symptoms, such as convulsions and difficulty walking, after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine.

“The spread of these videos could fuel vaccine hesitancy by giving an overly simplistic impression of potential links between the vaccine and major neurological symptoms,” Perez told MedPage Today. “Instead, these are symptoms of a real, brain-based disorder that sits at the intersection of neurology and psychiatry.”

“It is recognized that physical events such as head injury, surgeries, or vaccinations in some individuals can precipitate the development of FND,” Perez continued. “In such instances, one of the important mechanisms is the attention drawn to the body.”

Neurologists and other healthcare professionals have an obligation to explain FND to the public, he added.

While health experts have tried to stress that in most cases, there is no direct link between COVID-19 vaccines and various media-covered adverse events, more needs to be done, Fasano and Daniele noted.

This is especially true in light of misinformation and conspiracy beliefs about the COVID-19 pandemic, which are “now enriched by the theories of anti-vaccine movements,” they wrote. “We suggest that the medical community should be more vocal in informing the media and public opinion about FND, thus making a further step towards the establishment of ‘eHealth literacy.’” Last Updated August 20, 2021

  • Judy George covers neurology and neuroscience news for MedPage Today, writing about brain aging, Alzheimer’s, dementia, MS, rare diseases, epilepsy, autism, headache, stroke, Parkinson’s, ALS, concussion, CTE, sleep, pain, and more. 


The study by Fasano and Daniele was funded by the University of Toronto and the University Health Network Chair in Neuromodulation and Multidisciplinary Care.

Fasano and Daniele reported no competing interests.

Butler and co-authors reported relationships with the National Institutes of Health Research, the NIH National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the United Kingdom Research and Innovation/Medical Research Council, and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program ZikaPLAN.

Primary Source

Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry

Source Reference: Fasano A, Daniele A “Functional disorders after COVID-19 vaccine fuel vaccination hesitancy” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021; DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2021-327000.

Secondary Source

Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

Source Reference: Butler M, et al “Functional neurological disorder after SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: two case reports and discussion of potential public health implications” J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021; DOI: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.21050116.

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